Coproduction & Climate Services

In the coproduction [1] & actionable science research theme, my work contributes to the dialogue about the science-policy interface and the ways in which science can adapt to more effectively inform policy outcomes. For example in the context of adaptive management and user research, I explored ways to align the supply of information with its demand in order to support the transformations that are needed to address complex problems on the horizon for marine sectors[2, 3, 4].

My research emphasizes the value of experiential methods such as simulation-gaming and the importance of considering socioeconomic futures when the produced knowledge/policy informs/governs actors who operate in rapidly changing, high-stakes decision environments [5, 6]. Visit the ICEWISE Simulation page to find out more. Through my research I promote futures literacy and decision-relevant information to enhance sectoral and societal resilience in fast-changing environments [7, 8, 9].

The four paradoxes of sea-ice information services production (Blair et al. 2020)

Four paradoxes of sea-ice services details the paradoxes that emerge as seemingly irresolvable tensions in the coproduction of sea-ice services. Our proposed schematic outlines the conditions that precipitate these tensions and offers tactics that work in tandem with multi-stakeholder strategies toward responsible innovation.

Similar challenges will be faced more broadly by Arctic institutions, regulators and communities everywhere as rapid changes continue. Coproduction platforms that “work through” the paradox can help to ease tensions by producing knowledge that transcends any one sector or discipline, but one that is still contextual and complementary to global frameworks.


  1. M. Máñez Costa, A.M.P. Oen, T.-S. Neset, L. Celliers, M Suhari, J-T. Huang-Lachmann, R. Pimentel, B. Blair, J. Jeuring, E. Rodriguez-Camino, C. Photiadou, Y.J. Columbié, C. Gao, N.-C. Tudose, A. Cheval, S., Votsis, J. West, K. Lee, L.C. Shaffrey, C. Auer, H. Hoff, I. Menke, P. Walton, S. Schuck-Zöller. Co-production of Climate Services: A diversity of approaches and good practice from the ERA4CS projects (2017–2021). CSPR Report No 2021:2, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, Norrköping, Sweden. [URL]

2. Rautenbach, C., & Blair, B. (2021). Marine Meteorological forecasts for Coastal Ocean Users–Perceptions, Usability and Uptake. Geoscience Communication. DOI: 10.5194/gc-2020-50

3. Blair, B., Lee, O. A., & Lamers, M. (2020). Four Paradoxes of the User–Provider Interface: A Responsible Innovation Framework for Sea Ice Services. Sustainability, 12(2), 448.

4. Lamers, M.A.J., Knol, M., Müller, M., Blair, B., Jeuring, J.H.G., Rasmussen, T. and Sivle, A., (2018). Enhancing the Saliency of climate services for marine mobility sectors in European Arctic seas (SALIENSEAS): Stakeholder Advisory Group workshop report. Wageningen University. [URL]

5. Blair, B., Muller, M., Palerme, C., Blair, R., Crookall, D., & Lamers, M. (2020, May). ICEWISE: A game to test the effects of sea ice forecast reliability on voyage planners’ confidence. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (p. 19882).

6. Blair, B., Malte, M., Palerme, C., Blair, R., Crookall, D., Knoll-Kauffman, M., Lamers, M. (in review). Coproducing Sea-Ice Predictions Using Simulation-Gaming. Weather, Climate and Society.

7. Blair, B. and Muller-Stoffels, M. (2019). Maritime Futures 2035: The Arctic Region: Workshop Report & Technical Documentation. Wageningen University. [URL]

8. Preston, B.L., Lovecraft, A.L., Cost, D., Blair, B, Lee, O., Hillmer-Pegram, K., Wesche, S., Hum, R., Absar, M., Ernst, K., Fresco, N. (2017). Scenarios Thinking for the Bering / Chukchi / Beaufort Region. In Adaptation Actions for a Changing Arctic. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) of the Arctic Council, Oslo, Norway. [URL]

9. Lovecraft, A.L., Fresco, N., Cost, D., Blair, B. (2018). Northern Alaska Scenarios Project Report. International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. [URL]

Select publications, reports and poster presentations from this research theme: